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04 Februari, 2009

Mengenal Bahasa dan Paragrap (English)

THE JOURNALISTIC LANGUAGES

1 English Variety

What is referred to as the language journalism?
Journalistic language is a language fad used by the world persurat-kabaran (= the world of the press in print media). In further developments, journalistic language is the language used by all the mass media. Including mass media audio (radio), audio-visual (television) and multi media (internet). Until language journalism is one of the protean language, which was formed because the material that disampaikannya specifications.

Is there a language other fad?
Variety distinguished language in accordance with the penyampaiannya, ie, multiform oral language (everyday conversation) and writing (newspapers, books, correspondence, writing laws, etc.). Variety also be due to the language specification and the atmosphere penyampaiannya. Multiformity language that is standard (the official language / formal) and non-standard (youth, Slank, dialect, etc.). Finally, the protean language can also be due to material specifications that disampaikannya (the language of law, medicine, military, agriculture, trade, journalism, etc.). So, include language that journalistic fad language writing, standard and non standard).

Is there a protean language scientific, popular scientific and popular language?
Nothing. For the meaning of the word is a scientific convention meets science. Meanwhile, popular (populis) are known by the public. Scientific paper, could be at once very popular. Relativitas Einstein theory, for example, is very scientific, but at the same time is also very popular. As well as the theory of Big Bangnya Stephen Hawking. Conversely, any posts that are not scientific, but also not necessarily be popular. Many any posts in the print media which is not very scientific, for example, about the ghost stories, gossip artis, etc.. sepopuler review is not a scientific analysis of economic, financial, political, etc.. written by experts in the same media.

Is not as popular is because any posts an easily understood by the public?
This is not true. Any posts will be an easy to understand people, if the author uses language skilled multiformity write. Not because the author uses to write popular technique. For technical writing popular, in fact never have. Prof. paper. Mubyarto of UGM on Agricultural Economics, for example, clearly very scientific. However, any posts is easy once digested by the general public, as skilled use Mubyarto multiformity write English. As well as scientific Prof. any posts. Andi Hakim Nasution of IPB, Prof. Bambang Hidayat and Prof. of ITB. Fuad Hasan's UI. All professors still generate any posts earlier scientific, but also remain easily digested by the general public, because the skill level of their writing. Not because of any posts is called scientific popular. While any posts new journalists (who write the new study) in the mass media is also quite famous, are often difficult to understand by readers because it has not been skillful writing. Therefore, pengkategorian language to be scientific, popular scientific and popular is something wrong kaprah. Something is wrong, but understandable as truth by many people.
Is that true journalistic fad language including non-standard (popular)?
Not true. For most of any posts in the leading newspapers, using the standard language fad. The rubric of the teenagers in the same newspaper that can use non-standard language fad. On television, the language can be more multiformity variatif. News will be using standard multiformity language (language that dilisankan write = read). Language at the ceremony sinetron adolescents, must use non-standard multiformity (gaul language).

What multiformity standard language better and more correct than the non-standard language fad?
Not true. The language of good and true is the communicative (easy to understand). Language does not become good and if not properly used by and for people that do not match, in a match, and not to discuss material that does not fit well. For example, the English dialect Tegal, Madura or Batak, and if used properly by the comedian, in-joke for funny persiflage. But will not be good and if not properly used by the great teachers, government officials, judges etc.. in formal session to discuss the problems that also formal. High school children who speak the language gaul with their fellow friends, is good and true. But will not be good and true, if not the language used to create a paper that is a task of the school.

What language journalism more popular (more easily understood), compared with the language in the work of literature?
Not true. Language in the works of literature that is good, also very easy to understand even very good read. Correct, the work of journalism that is easy to understand (well read) and some are difficult to understand. Works of literature are so. Posts Pramudya, Rendra, Putu Wijaya and Arswendo, very easy to understand and easy to read. While there are some sasterawan that his work is difficult to read and understand.

2 Spelling

What is the spelling?
Spelling is the procedure of writing letters, words, sentences, punctuation, following penggabungannya and beheading in a language.
Why spelling is required in writing and not in the vernacular?
Because in the oral language, the communication will terbantu vote by the color (vivid, gentle), intonation (hard, soft), frequency (fast, slow); mimic the speaker (sad, happy); body movement and the overall atmosphere at the language performed. Until the sentence is not perfect, communication can take place both in the oral language fad. For example, two friends in an office, meet at 12:00 in alley toilet. One says: Eat. Then again the one said: Come on. Communication with the only two words that have lasted well, and two of the ago to run a diner for lunch. But writing in the language, eat and let the words do not have any meaning, except with the previous beginning of the narrative: the existence of two friends in an office, during the lunch hour, in an alley near the toilet. Although already begins with the narrative so, still required the writing case, question mark, exclamation point, comma etc.. to eat and said goodbye, all of which are set in the use of spelling.
Will also have the English spelling?
Bahasa Indonesia, which comes from Variety Bahasa Melayu, never have Ophuijsen Van spelling, since that is used up to the Youth Oath in 1947. Residual spelling Van Ophuijsen that until now the public is still remembered, with the writing u oe. Until the Youth Oath was written as Soempah Pemoeda. From 1947 until the year 1972, using the English Spelling Soewandi. Soewandi of spelling, which is still remembered by the public is with the writing c tj; with ny nj and j with dj. From 1972 until now been used Spelling (EYD).

What language should be absolute journalistic wieldy on EYD?
Should not be. Only the language journalism in the mass media that is formal, to convey the facts, data (news) and opinions (opinions) that are also the formal absolute must in the EYD wieldy. For example, a national newspaper or magazine is read by the entire population of Indonesia and proclaim or write about economic issues, political, social and cultural nature of national even international, must be abiding in the absolute EYD.

Type of writing and the media which may not abiding in the EYD?
Writing in the magazine, youth, sports etc. tabloids. special publication (bulletin / internal journals) etc., can only violate the principle EYD, with the intent to make it more interesting and more understood by the target readers. Variety language even teenagers tend to rebel against not only the spelling, but also the entire Indonesian rule. The use of short messages (SMS) via mobile phone (HP), as well as potential damage to all the spelling and language rules. Likewise with the language used in the message via the internet.

Where can we get in accordance with the guidelines of the EYD?
Guidelines EYD writing the rules, we can get from the guide books speak of a lot sold in bookstores. Can be also obtained in the Language Center, the Ministry of National Education, in the way Daksinapati, Rawamangun, Jakarta.

3 Words

What is the word?
The word element is the language spoken, written or diperagakan, to achieve a unity of understanding. Element is a phoneme in a word and morpheme.

What is referred to as a phoneme?
Phoneme is the smallest units of sound, both consonant and vowel, that is capable of creating a difference in understanding the words. Phoneme consonants from a different, more easily understood than the phoneme of the same vowel letter. Phoneme from different consonants such as: search (CE); of (de); day (ha); finger (je); lari (el); dance (te). Phoneme of the same vowel letter, among others: puppy (puppy = beggar) and puppy (puppy = curtains); drag (drag = not smooth) and drag (drag force = interesting); mat (mat = not slippery) and mat (mat = plaited fiber etc.. shoeblack); ter (ter = most) and pitch (pitch = black cat); nek (nek = nausea) and nek (nek = call for grandmother); per (per = each) and per (per = spring) etc.. Until the city Purwokerto (Central Java) and Probolinggo (East Java) are written with fenem o, so that people do not dibingungkan with the name of the city Purwakarta (West Java) and Purbalingga (Central Java).

What is referred to as a morpheme?
Morpheme is the smallest unit of language that contains one or more of the meaning that does not change. There is a free morpheme has its own meaning in a sentence. For example, bathing, sleeping, pain, stool, etc. heavens. There are bound morpheme, ie, a morpheme can not have its own meaning in a sentence. For example, the prefix, infix, suffix and other particles (lah, kah, also), who will have new meaning when combined with another morpheme.

There was kind of a word in English?
During this time English, as in other modern languages of the world, with 10 types of words, ie, 1 noun (nomina); 2 verb (verba); 3 adj (adjektiva); 4 pronoun (pronomina); 5 word description ( adverbia); word number 6 (numeralia); 7 conjunction (conjunction); 8 said clothing (articles); 9 exclamation (interjection); 10 preposition (preposition). In the last, the tenth type of words that are grouped into up to five more groups. I Verba (The Work = born, eat, sleep, bathe, go, go, singing); Adjektiva II (The nature = good, clever, true, noble); Adverbia III (Description = The word is now, before, later, visit, first, far, close, wide); Kata Benda Group IV: 1 Nomina (noun / word = name of the land, water, trees, houses, Jakarta, Indonesia, Sastro), 2 Pronomina (Word Change = I, I, you, he, his, your, their, your, we, us), 3 Numeralia (= Words Numbers one, two, three, few, many); The Task Group V: 1 prepositive (= in the word Home, to, from, in the , since, on, by, for), 2 Konjungtor (Word Connect = and, so, however, because, so, if, or, even, even), 3 interjection (Word Fun = gosh, wow, huh, um, ooh ), Article 4 (= the word clothing, si, a), 5 particles (lah, kah, also).

What is the meaning of the word?
The meaning of a word is created by a form of language. There are a variety of word meaning. Grammatical meaning (based on the relationship between the meaning of one word with another word, or phrase with a clause); leksikal meaning (the meaning of words as symbols of objects, events, etc.); meaning lokusi; broad meaning; contextual meaning; meaning connotations; cognitive meaning; the meaning of intention; special meaning; meaning emotif (effective); the extension of meaning, meaning detonatif etc..

What is a phrase (phrases)?
Phrases are groups of words with one another has a bound, but not until berpredikat not form sentences. For example: Country Rebublik Unity of Indonesia; multi-dimensional crisis, the value of foreign currency exchange; historical subjects; etc. legislative election campaign. These phrases will form a new sentence when given clause (the word berpredikat). For example: Maintain the Republic of Indonesia; multi-dimensional crisis occurred, the exchange rate on the foreign currency; the history of the subjects; bill legislative election campaign promise etc..

Lalimat whether all groups will be formed in otomastis phrase?
Not always. The combined group said it could not have meaning because of the absence of a bound. For example: country-dimensional exchange history; unity crisis of values etc.. In addition, the combination of words can also form the idiom, its meaning has changed the meaning of each word you join. For example, dark eyes pikirannya = chaotic; land = country; pavement = sidewalk; banting bones = working hard.

What is referred to as diksi?
Diksi or word choice is a technique to draw the most appropriate word to obtain a certain effect in writing. In sports journalism, for example, many diksi used. For example: The end of the spear was eleven UK bust wicket Germany. Attacker instead, used the tip of the spear idiom. Entrance gate to the ball with Germany be depicted through. Diksi become more important in selecting the second person pronoun: you, you, you, there, you, sampeyan, énté, you, jeng, mbak, kak, bang etc.. Greet you with a certain boss is considered inappropriate. Conversely, if a friend of carib suddenly call you, or there, it means that there are problems seem to have the distance.
To select a word that is appropriate, needed a lot of knowledge about the color and nuance of words / language. Beautiful words, beautiful, sweet, cool, great, clear, healthy, ménor, sexy, sensual, full cream, semlohoi, the color and feel of the language is very different. Beautiful, beautiful, sweet, cool is still quite modest and neutral. Great, clear, sahat, Slank ménor already started. Sexy, sensual, back neutral. Full cream, semlohoi, Slank back. House, hut, hut, Griya, port, building, palace, has a similar meaning. However, peryataan: "Yes this is Pak, hut I!" Contains the meaning merendah. Stalls, food depot, rice shops, restaurants, restaurant, café, coffee shop, which has more or less the same. However, there are strata which appear to show the class a place to sell food and drink it.

The 4

What is referred to as the sentence?
Sentence is a language element, consisting of at least two words as the subject and predicate. For example: Chicken die. Chicken = subject (S) and die = predicate (P). Although there are several words are combined, if there is no subject and predicate, called the sentence can not. Can be just a phrase, not the phrase also can not also sentence. For example: At twelve midnight. Although there are four words, but the four-word description of the new shows (Ket). No subject, no predicate. When added with the air is very cold, then terbentuklah sentence: At twelve midnight (Ket.), air (S), very cold (P).

Do you only need the words as the subject and predicate?
Sentence also requires an object (O), supplement (pill) and description (Ket). Gardener (S) flush (P) plants (O) with river water (pill) in the dry season (Ket). Complete this sentence with the pattern of S - P - O - pill - Ket. The pattern is S - P - O - pill (Wind plant gardens flush with the river water = no information); S - P - O - Ket (Wind flush garden plants during the dry season = no supplement); S - P - Ket (Wind garden flush during the dry season = without object, without a companion); S - P - pill (Wind gardens flush with the river water = without object, without explanation); S - P - O (Wind garden plants = flush without complement, without description) ; S - P (Wind = flush garden without object, without a complement, without description).

Whether in all the subject must always be written in front of the predicate?
Should not be. The subyeknya in depat as examples, the sentence is active (subyeknya work). But can only predikatnya written in the future, then subyeknya. For example: In the dry season (Ket) disiramnya (P) of plants (S) with river water (O) by gardener (pill). Sentence so-called passive sentences. For subyeknya (plants) do not work.

What is referred to as a single sentence and compound sentence?
Simple sentence consists of only one subject and a predicate. People (S) Medium (Ket) leaving work (P). Compound sentences have more than one subject and a predicate. People (S) Medium (Ket) leaving work (P), when suddenly (Ket) thunderstorm (S) knock down (P) trees and buildings (O) in the entire city (pill). This is a terraced compound sentence. Compound sentence is equivalent to: People (P) start (Ket) leaving work (P) and the bus-bus (S) came to meet (P) they (O).

What are the functions of the sentence?
Sentence can function as penyampai news (the news): President of the new (S) was selected (P) by the (O) with the absolute vote (pill) this month (Ket). Can also penyampai as a statement (sentence deklaratif: This Month (Ket) people (S) was selected (P) I (O) as president (pill) with the absolute vote (Ket). Penyampai For questions (the question): This month ( ket) who (S) will be selected as the president (P) by the (O) with the absolute vote (pill)? penyampai As command (the command): Undecided (P) I (S) as president (O) with the absolute vote ( pill) this month (Ket).

What is the only language in which journalism should be short, compact and easy to understand?
All multiformity serious language (journalistic, scientific (universities, research institutes); law; trade; literature etc. Must be short, compact and easy to understand. However, on the other hand, the use of opium and condensation should not be sacrificing the aspect of completeness and accuracy of the information will be presented. Hingga not true that only the language jurnalistiklah which must be short, compact and easy to understand, while scientific language, law and literature may be long-winded and difficult to understand.

How, if the sentence is too long, incomplete, incorrect choice of words, one of the preparation logikanya etc.?
An author should re-read all the works that just deselesaikannya, while improving the error and complete the parts that are still incomplete. Publishing company in the mass media, the task of improving and completing this paper is on the editor, editor and proofreader.




Paragraph 5 (paragraph)
What is a paragraph or a paragraph in any posts?
Paragraph is the paragraph or sentence, the sentence is supported by several others to form an understanding of (basic ideas) is intact. For example:
Just 59 years after independence, the Indonesian people can choose the president directly. In the year 1945, Ir. Soekarno, elected by acclamation of the members BPUPKI (Board investigators Attempts Preparation Independence Indonesia), as the first president of Indonesia. Letjen. Soeharto, was appointed as president by MPRS officials (People's Assembly while Permusyawaratan), in 1967. Then as much as six times, to become president Soeharto elected by MPR (People's Assembly Permusyawaratan). When Soeharto's "prime minister", the Vice President (Vice President) BJ Habibie, was to become the third President of the Republic of Indonesia. MPR 1999 Election results, select K.H. Abdurachman Wahid (Gus Dur) as the fourth president of the Republic of Indonesia through voting. In 2001, Gus Dur dilengserkan by Special Session (SI) MPR. and Vice President Megawati becomes Indonesia's fifth president. After the 1945 Constitution amended, this new year 2004 people can choose their president directly.

What is referred to as the head of the sentence?
Head of the sentence is the sentence that contains the (main ideas) primary (most important), but still require the support of the next sentence-sentence. Head called the sentence the main clause or main clause. In the example above, almost 60 years After Independence, this time a new opportunity for the Indonesian people directly choose the president, is head of the sentence. Next sentence, the sentence contains information that supports the main ideas in the sentence. Confirmation of the last sentence is a sentence in the head. Up to this paragraph are deductive - inductive.

Whether the sentence should be placed before the next sentence, supporting sentences?
Position the head sentence, should not be in the front (to be the beginning of paragraph). If the head is placed in front of the sentence, the paragraph will be deductive. This means beginning with a general statement, followed by new details that are specific explanation. If the sentence in the background, the paragraph will be inductive. Description specialized shown first, then ended with a statement that is general. But also can be in one paragraph, each sentence of up to support the same strong, it is hard to decide which are the most important and became head of the sentence. Paragraph are therefore usually narrative or descriptive. For example:
In 1945, the Indonesian people, and proclaim themselves free from colonialism. At that time Ir. Soekarno was selected as the first president of Indonesia. Constituent after the 1955 elections failed to form a constitution, in 1959 Soekarno issued a decree to return to the 1945 Constitution. Since that is the power of Soekarno as the Leader of Revolution to be without limit. 1965 political upheaval that occurred as the popular G. 30 S. Ir power. Soekarno slowly dwindle. In the year 1967, the MPRS Special Session, which revoked the powers of Ir. Soekarno and the Letjen. President Soeharto as the officer of RI. During 32 years of Soeharto's New Order Golkarnya and power in this country. Until in 1997, again over the economic crisis. The economic crisis is developing a political crisis that caused the fall of Soeharto. Respectively we have a president B.J. Habibie, Gus Dur and Megawati only in the period from 1998 to. 2004. And new elections in 2004, the people of Indonesia have five candidates for president, and can select it directly.

Allow one paragraph in each kalimatnya has its own understanding?
Not allowed. For the paragraph will not be one of unity intact, the only load one principal thought (understanding). Although the reading, the paragraph is still nice to read. For example:
Just 59 years after independence, the Indonesian people can choose the president directly. Ir. Soekarno, the first president of Indonesia, including time as the famous playboy. The wife of a dozen authorized. Jenderal Besar Soeharto, although only a junior high school formal, but is able to power up to 32 years. B.J. Habibie, the third President of the Republic of Indonesia, was in charge only about 1.5 years and had to make East Timor separated from the lap of RI. Election Results, 1999, was won by PDIP, partainya Megawati. However, MPR is selected K.H. Abdurachman Wahid (Gus Dur) as the fourth president of the Republic of Indonesia through voting. Gus Dur is also apparently difficult to maintain kursinya, because penglihatannya with problems and many roads out of the country. In 2004 the Indonesian people can prosper as well as a five Capres / Cawapres, which includes Megawati since 2001 to become president of RI fifth replace Gusdur.

What is ideally the number of sentences in a paragraph?
Ideally, in one paragraph only termuat five to 10 sentences. Both the compound and a single sentence. Number of characters in one paragraph of 500 to 1,000 characters (with spaces). Pengetikan with Ms. Word, Times New Roman 12 point, ideally in a single paragraph consisting of 7 to 12 lines. Longer than 10 sentences, 1,000 characters, 12 lines, people will be tired reading.

What is the relationship between one paragraph with another paragraph?
With the same sentence that requires the support of the next sentence, the sentence, the paragraph is also referred to as the head of paragraph (leads, news headlines). Head of this paragraph contains the main basic ideas, which require support from the next paragraph-paragraph. For example, the example paragraph above (about the people directly choose the president), is regarded as head of the paragraph. Then the next paragraph must support a basic understanding with: One paragraph recounts how the president has chosen people from the U.S. to 1945. 2004? Next paragraph, the five Capres / Cawapres, predicted earnings vote, how they are campaigning etc.. In the world of journalism, the paragraph, which is always the front, called a lead. Function is to lead the reader can "drag" into the whole without any posts to stop. Therefore, leads into a very important factor in the world of journalism.

Called if the next paragraph-paragraph after paragraph that serves as a lead?
Paragraph hereinafter referred to as the body. Nature of this paragraph in the body can be deductive, inductive, deductive - inductive, narrative or diskriptif, highly depends on the form of writings. In the article, the nature of deductive - inductive and disputatious in the paragraph, the more commonly used. Meanwhile, in the feature, the nature of narrative and descriptive paragraph on the more suitable for use. In addition, we also can still use the other attributes in the paragraph. For example, disputatious, persuasive, ekspositoris, definitive, klasifikatif, etc. provocative. The end of the paragraph, usually ending with one of the basic repeat kalimatnya thought that was delivered in the lead.

6 Form of delivery

What is the form of delivery in journalism?
Delivery in the form of journalism, in fact the same paper with the literature, scientific papers, reports on patient health, legal proceedings for the accused etc.. In general the form of a language to write it is: narrative, descriptive, ekspositoris, disputatious, persuasive, konfrontatif, etc. agitatif.

How can convey ideas in written form of narrative?
Narrative form of story telling is common. In need of a story plot or story plot, characters (the subject), chronology (time) and background (setting = space). Although the subject and the background image you use the methods of descriptive writing, but up in the most preferred narrative is the story flow. For example:
The morning at 07.00, Mas Yono still relaxed at home in the Cimanggis, Depok. Usually at this hour he was returning from the market while Cisalak shoulder bag containing meat goats. Daily Mas Yono sells sate, gule and tongseng goats on the road Mekarsari Raya. But this day she can relax. Although that also means he will not earn for a day. But what may make. Today, Monday 5 July 2004 is the Election of the President. For the first Mas Yono presidennya will be able to choose directly, not represented by members of the MPR. But not as usual, this time he put on black pants, shoes and clothes batik. She also put on a skirt continuation flower-flower motif. At 7:30, Mas Yono and his wife go to the TPS to determine the choice. Although he already have a solid choice, but did not name the choice Capres told this to other people. Even his wife was alone at all do not know, who this morning will ditusuk by Mas Yono. Dst.
Forms of narrative such, suitable for use in feature writing and reportase. Not suitable for writing articles or news (news). Although any posts in one, never an author uses only one method. Usually narration, description, argumentation, etc. persuasi. all used to feature or article is written to be interesting.

How descriptive writing in the world of journalism?
Form of descriptive writing gives a detailed factual description of objects, events, atmosphere and background of the material that is written. Writing descriptive observation field work requires a very careful with the records in detail. The purpose of writing is descriptive, so that readers can really berimajinasi of the overall material that is written. Sample descriptive any posts.
Terrain in the middle of the complex housing Mekarsari that is surrounded by palm trees in the king who pitched at 15 m. Under the stem-stem palm swell that the king was pangkalnya, bermekaran flowers helikonia colors. Ranging from yellow, red and pink. Wide field of 5000 m² and diapit by road in all four sides. On the green carpet grass that is the closet-chamber TPS built. Kerangkanya from kaso the roof and the walls be painted white plywood. Perhaps the use of white paint is deliberate, because the use of other colors, such as red, yellow, green and blue, is feared will be considered "campaign" from one of the political party elections in 2004. In front of the room-the room is a table row committee, patok strap and a strap-direntangkan as the flow of voters will line up. A parachute tent dibentangkan with a long pole and rope-temalinya. Under the tent that is the emergency Mas Yono and their neighbors RW one sitting orderly waiting to be called the turn.
Description of any posts in journalism, should not be imanjinatif (based on the illusion), does not match up to real conditions in the field. Descriptive picture of imagination, only be justified in any posts fiction (poetry, short story, novel, drama script, scenario film / sinetron, etc.). In feature, or reportase news, descriptive illustration background, atmosphere characters, and eventless absolutely must be in accordance with the factual situation in the field.

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